Art. 50. Prohibition Against Deceptive Sales Acts or Practices. - A deceptive act or practice
by a seller or supplier in connection with a consumer transaction violates this Act whether it occurs before, during or after
the transaction. An act or practice shall be deemed deceptive whenever the producer, manufacturer, supplier or seller, through
concealment, false representation of fraudulent manipulation, induces a consumer to enter into a sales or lease transaction
of any consumer product or service.
Without limiting the scope of the above paragraph, the act or practice
of a seller or supplier is deceptive when it represents that:
(a) a consumer product or service has the sponsorship, approval,
performance, characteristics, ingredients, accessories, uses, or benefits it does not have;
(b) a consumer
product or service is of a particular standard, quality, grade, style, or model when in fact it is not;
(c) a consumer
product is new, original or unused, when in fact, it is in a deteriorated, altered, reconditioned, reclaimed or second-hand
(d) a consumer product or service is available to the consumer for a reason that is different from
(e) a consumer product or service has been supplied in accordance with the previous representation
when in fact it is not;
(f) a consumer product or service can be supplied in a quantity greater than the supplier intends;
(g) a service,
or repair of a consumer product is needed when in fact it is not;
(h) a specific price advantage of a consumer product exists
when in fact it does not;
(i) the sales act or practice involves or does not involve a warranty, a disclaimer of warranties,
particular warranty terms or other rights, remedies or obligations if the indication is false; and
(j) the seller
or supplier has a sponsorship, approval, or affiliation he does not have.
Art. 51. Deceptive Sales Act or Practices
By Regulation. - The Department shall, after due notice and hearing, promulgate regulations declaring as deceptive
any sales act, practice or technique which is a misrepresentation of facts other than these enumerated in Article 50.
52. Unfair or Unconscionable Sales Act or Practice. - An unfair or unconscionable sales act or practice by a
seller or supplier in connection with a consumer transaction violates this Chapter whether it occurs before, during or after
the consumer transaction. An act or practice shall be deemed unfair or unconscionable whenever the producer, manufacturer,
distributor, supplier or seller, by taking advantage of the consumer's physical or mental infirmity, ignorance, illiteracy,
lack of time or the general conditions of the environment or surroundings, induces the consumer to enter into a sales or lease
transaction grossly inimical to the interests of the consumer or grossly one-sided in favor of the producer, manufacturer,
distributor, supplier or seller.
In determining whether an act or practice is unfair and unconscionable, the following circumstances
shall be considered:
(a) that the producer, manufacturer, distributor, supplier or seller took advantage of the inability
of the consumer to reasonably protect his interest because of his inability to understand the language of an agreement, or
(b) that when the consumer transaction was entered into, the price grossly exceeded the price at which
similar products or services were readily obtainable in similar transaction by like consumers;
(c) that when
the consumer transaction was entered into, the consumer was unable to receive a substantial benefit from the subject of the
(d) that when the consumer was entered into, the seller or supplier was aware that there was no reasonable
probability or payment of the obligation in full by the consumer; and
(e) that the transaction that the seller or supplier induced
the consumer to enter into was excessively one-sided in favor of the seller or supplier.
53. Chain Distribution Plans or Pyramid Sales Schemes. - Chain distribution plans
or pyramid sales schemes shall not be employed in the sale of consumer products.
Art. 54. Home
Solicitation Sales. - No business entity shall conduct any home solicitation sale of any consumer product or service
without first obtaining a permit from the Department. Such permit may be denied suspended or revoked upon cause as provided
in the rules and regulations promulgated by the Department, after due notice and hearing.
55. Home Solicitation Sales; When Conducted. - Home solicitation sales may be conducted
only between the hours of nine o'clock in the morning and seven o'clock in the evening of each working day: Provided,
That solicitation sales may be made at a time other than the prescribed hours where the person solicited has previously agreed
to the same.
Art. 56. Home Solicitation Sales; by Whom Conducted. - Home solicitation
sales shall only be conducted by a person who has the proper identification and authority from his principal to make such
Art. 57. Receipts for Home Solicitation Sales.
- Sales generated from home solicitation sales shall be properly receipted as per existing laws, rules and regulations
on sale transactions.
Art. 58. Prohibited Representations. -
A home solicitation sale shall not represent that:
the buyer has been specially selected;
(b) a survey, test or research is being conducted; or
(c) the seller
is making a special offer to a few persons only for a limited period of time.
Art. 59. Referral Sales. - Referral selling plans shall not be used
in the sale of consumer products unless the seller executes in favor of the buyer a written undertaking that will grant a
specified compensation or other benefit to said buyer in return for each and every transaction consummated by said seller
with the persons referred by said buyer or for subsequent sales that said buyers has helped the seller enter into.
60. Penalties. - (a) Any person who shall violate the provisions of Title III, Chapter
I, shall upon conviction, be subject to a fine of not less than Five Hundred Pesos (P500.00) but not more than Ten Thousand
Pesos (P10,000.00) or imprisonment of not less than five (5) months but not more than one (1) year or both, upon the discretion
of the court.
(b) In addition to the penalty provided for in paragraph (1), the court may grant an injunction restraining
the conduct constituting the contravention of the provisions of Articles 50 and 51 and/or actual damages and such other orders
as it thinks fit to redress injury to the person caused by such conduct.